Questions and Answers

Daily Life

Yes, when one applies the Four Right Efforts (or 6R), one activates the Seven Factors. 

Recognizing activates Mindfulness, when one sees mind was distracted, and Investigation when one sees tension has arisen

Releasing activates Effort (enthusiasm) when one lets go of the hindrance with Right Intention

Relaxing activates Tranquility when one relaxes the tension in Mind and Body

Re-Smiling activates Joy

Returning activates Collectedness and Equanimity

There is also Equanimity present when one doesn’t allow mind to take the craving personal. When one sees distractions and thus Repeats when necessary.

So, the Four Right Efforts disable the Hindrances and enable the Seven Factors. Then one is said to be in jhana.

Whenever the 6Rs are applied, mind is in jhana, even if for a moment. If one 6Rs and returns to mind’s object, so long as one remains with that object that jhana continues.

Categories: Daily Life, Meditation

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 4 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability 

The Mindfulness is a factor present in all states where attention is given. Whenever you are in jhana, the enlightenment Factors are present. Anytime you are distracted, the enlightenment Factors are not present, especially Mindfulness. But Mindfulness is always there, whether you are meditating in a sitting practice, or in daily living. This is why there’s the Four Foundations of Mindfulness in everyday living; you are mindful of the body as body; you’re mindful of sensations as sensations; you’re mindful of mind as mind; and you’re mindful of phenomena as phenomena. Every time you use your Mindfulness, you are activating the enlightenment Factor of Mindfulness, which means that you are able to see when a hindrance is arising and quickly let go of it, quickly use the 6R process to let go of it.

When it comes to the other enlightenment Factors that need to be balanced, just know that when you are in the jhana practice, the enlightenment Factors are already present in there.

As you get into deeper levels, you will see that, for example in Neither-perception-nor non-perception, your mind usually tends to slope either towards Sloth&Torpor or Restlessness. These are the two hindrances that are most dealt with, when it comes to the Neither-perception-nor non-perception. You will not see sensual craving in there, you won’t see ill will there, you won’t see doubt there as a hindrance.

Know this; whenever the hindrances are present, at that point the enlightenment Factors are not present. But as soon as you bring in Mindfulness, you start to bring in the other enlightenment Factors, depending upon which jhana you’re in; the level of the jhana that you’re at, determines the amount of enlightenment Factors that are present. For example, when you are in the first and second jhana, the enlightenment Factor of Joy and Energy are more prevalent. As you get deeper and deeper, certain other Factors are more prevalent. Once you get into quiet mind, as you’re just observing quiet mind, everything has been sort of aligned and balanced, and now smoothly flows. So, those hindrances of sensual craving, the ill will, and the doubt have been completely dealt with, and then, all you’re dealing with are the Sloth&Torpor and Restlessness. Whenever you see this happening, know that you’re not in jhana. When you use the 6R process, every step of the 6R process is in alignment with one of the enlightenment Factors. So, every time you use the 6R process, you are activating or reactivating the enlightenment Factors. And by doing so you’re coming back into jhana.

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Meditation

Good question. This is a deviation that Bhante Vimalaramsi did. He took it from the Visuddhimagga. It turned out to make the meditation easier for people to start with. It’s like using training wheels for a while. 

Instead of sending Metta to all directions and all beings as per the suttas, you first start with just one person that you admire – someone who makes you smile, when you think of them. 

 You start small, as your feeling of Metta is still weak and is just getting started. It’s much easier to dwell on one person, than on all beings at once.  The Metta initially gets too diffused or watered down when it goes into the directions. 

So, you start with a Spiritual Friend to get familiar with the process of the 6R’s. Once the Metta has built up to the level of the fourth Jhana, you will learn to radiate in the directions and to all beings.

Contact a teacher here if you’re not sure whether your practice has progressed to the fourth Jhana. They will advice you on how to progress.

Please check below if you want to know more about how to pick a suitable spiritual friend:

https://www.dhammasukha.org/getting-started-with-twim.html

Category: Meditation

In this long life, and even over countless lifetimes, one can never hope to let go of every unwholesome thought or act that ever happened. And actually, there is no need for that. 

When you 6R, gradually the unwholesome thoughts (hindrances) weaken. In not too long a time, they finally stop altogether, at least for a little while.  A Jhana will arise. Then another thought comes up and you 6R it, weakening the thought-stream again. 

You progress step by step, but you only need to observe and 6R the hindrances that come up during your sit. Once a Jhana has come up, the whole concept of self starts to weaken, and the thoughts, like branches, die off. Finally, you cut the trunk of the tree with deep insight and no more branches can grow back. No more self-concepts or hindrances.  Only pure awareness and being in the present.

Category: Meditation

Yes, when one applies the Four Right Efforts (or 6R), one activates the Seven Factors. 

Recognizing activates Mindfulness, when one sees mind was distracted, and Investigation when one sees tension has arisen

Releasing activates Effort (enthusiasm) when one lets go of the hindrance with Right Intention

Relaxing activates Tranquility when one relaxes the tension in Mind and Body

Re-Smiling activates Joy

Returning activates Collectedness and Equanimity

There is also Equanimity present when one doesn’t allow mind to take the craving personal. When one sees distractions and thus Repeats when necessary.

So, the Four Right Efforts disable the Hindrances and enable the Seven Factors. Then one is said to be in jhana.

Whenever the 6Rs are applied, mind is in jhana, even if for a moment. If one 6Rs and returns to mind’s object, so long as one remains with that object that jhana continues.

Categories: Daily Life, Meditation

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 4 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability 

The Mindfulness is a factor present in all states where attention is given. Whenever you are in jhana, the enlightenment Factors are present. Anytime you are distracted, the enlightenment Factors are not present, especially Mindfulness. But Mindfulness is always there, whether you are meditating in a sitting practice, or in daily living. This is why there’s the Four Foundations of Mindfulness in everyday living; you are mindful of the body as body; you’re mindful of sensations as sensations; you’re mindful of mind as mind; and you’re mindful of phenomena as phenomena. Every time you use your Mindfulness, you are activating the enlightenment Factor of Mindfulness, which means that you are able to see when a hindrance is arising and quickly let go of it, quickly use the 6R process to let go of it.

When it comes to the other enlightenment Factors that need to be balanced, just know that when you are in the jhana practice, the enlightenment Factors are already present in there.

As you get into deeper levels, you will see that, for example in Neither-perception-nor non-perception, your mind usually tends to slope either towards Sloth&Torpor or Restlessness. These are the two hindrances that are most dealt with, when it comes to the Neither-perception-nor non-perception. You will not see sensual craving in there, you won’t see ill will there, you won’t see doubt there as a hindrance.

Know this; whenever the hindrances are present, at that point the enlightenment Factors are not present. But as soon as you bring in Mindfulness, you start to bring in the other enlightenment Factors, depending upon which jhana you’re in; the level of the jhana that you’re at, determines the amount of enlightenment Factors that are present. For example, when you are in the first and second jhana, the enlightenment Factor of Joy and Energy are more prevalent. As you get deeper and deeper, certain other Factors are more prevalent. Once you get into quiet mind, as you’re just observing quiet mind, everything has been sort of aligned and balanced, and now smoothly flows. So, those hindrances of sensual craving, the ill will, and the doubt have been completely dealt with, and then, all you’re dealing with are the Sloth&Torpor and Restlessness. Whenever you see this happening, know that you’re not in jhana. When you use the 6R process, every step of the 6R process is in alignment with one of the enlightenment Factors. So, every time you use the 6R process, you are activating or reactivating the enlightenment Factors. And by doing so you’re coming back into jhana.

Watch it here

 It is basically the Equanimity of the Awakened ones, of the Ariya’s, that in the third jhana they speak of that; this is a pleasant abiding, steady awareness, steady presence of mind.

It is that Equanimity, that steadiness of mind in the fourth jhana, in this particular sutta [AN IX 34 Nibbānasukha Sutta], that is the coarser aspect which comes and troubles us.

I called it immovability, because to say that Equanimity is disturbing, is kind of…odd, I felt 🙂 Because Equanimity is the opposite of disturbance. At that point there is still awareness of form, awareness of body.

In my understanding that’s where I lean towards.

Watch it here

Category: Meditation

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 4 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability 

When you have one-pointed concentration or one-pointed focus, you’re actually suppressing the hindrances. So, you’re also suppressing the mind’s ability to see the hindrances. After you come out of that one- pointed focus or that one-pointed concentration, what one will notice is that, for a period of time, it may seem all well and fine. But then the hindrances arise with a vengeance, and there are still those hindrances present.

Whereas, if you’re using an open awareness in the case of the TWIM practice, using attention rooted in reality, and using this open Mindfulness you are already able to see how the hindrances are arising. And able to deal with them with Mindfulness, and then therefore activate the other enlightenment Factors.

In the case of the one-pointed focus or one-pointed concentration, none of those Factors are even present. There may be, sometimes, joy arising because of that one-pointed focus, but that is the wrong kind of joy. You can say it’s ineffective joy, it’s not necessarily the same Joy that you see with the enlightenment Factors. The mind may seem like it’s collected, but it’s not collected; it’s suppressed, rather than collected.

Collected mind and unification of mind, or unified mindset, is an attention around the object of meditation – or the vehicle of meditation, as it’s sometimes called – and so when you’re around it, you have a more clear and open awareness to which you can now recognize when hindrances might arise. And when they do, you can quickly 6R them. Or when insights arise, like insights into the Three Characteristics of Existence, insights into the links of Dependent Origination, insights into the Four Noble Truths, and so on. This is the way that the Path would be most effective.

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Jhana is from the word the root dhy and this has many translations possible; seeing, understanding. And this is what we do in meditation, where you’re practicing this clarity of mind, seeing.

 These jhanas are simply used as a kind of road map of our understanding. In the first jhana, for example, there are different factors, like the joy of letting go and the thinking and imagining are still there, thinking and reflection. Now at that time, it’s difficult to really see it as a definitive clear-cut thing. It doesn’t really work like that. The mind is more of a jungle than this [laughs]. We have to bushwhack in the jungle for a little bit, and make a path, and we see markers along the path. It becomes clearer and clearer. Now there are wholesome tree species that we can develop, that will help us walk the path in the forest. When you are with the feeling of Loving-kindness, it’s not so much that hatred will just kick in. It’s not really clear like that. It will be more like the mind starts getting bored, maybe, or it will start getting dull and it will lose interest. Then, mindfulness starts to slip, and then the Loving-kindness drops a little bit. When that happens, this opens the door for other states to come in. This is fairly unconscious, because these unwholesome states, as they creep in, are not really conscious. They’re just coming up, and that’s why we’re practicing the Loving-kindness. That’s the power of Loving-kindness, that it really makes a definite break between the Loving-kindness and any other kinds of thinking. If the feeling of Loving-kindness is gone, then it’s not there anymore; now you’re with something else, who knows what it is.

I try to answer your question as directly as I can, which is not easy because it’s not clear-cut like that. The mindfulness will get dull and then unwholesome things, unwholesome states, will creep in. But to just notice this, somebody needs quite good awareness, and that’s what we’re cultivating all the time. In fact, that’s the practice.

These states are conditioned within our psyche. Like I said, this is a talk on wholesome mental development. The mind gets conditioned, whether we like it or not, by everything that we do, and it leaves an impression on the mind. These bhavas, these habitual tendencies, that we develop by liking this or that, disliking this or that, it’s like writing our hard drive every time. We’re accumulating this all the time. And, unless we actually purify it, it sticks with us. These unwholesome states arise, because the mindfulness has gotten down a little bit. Our mindfulness slips, and then we slip into these pre-programmed sankaras – activities in the mind that are pre-programmed.

Perhaps I should say that it’s not so much that, either it’s completely unwholesome or wholesome. Perhaps more that these are wholesome states, and these are unwholesome states and just to know that, is what we need to do. To do the triage in our mind, and to sort them out, so that we can always cultivate towards wholesome states.

 What I meant was closer to; when there is this feeling of Loving-kindness in all directions – and that’s why it’s so important to develop it in that way, as a feeling that is radiating in all directions – that’s one step, the feeling. That’s very important, it’s a very wholesome feeling. And the second step is the boundless part, which is the mental release, that is very important in this practice.

 When it is done in that way, it is completely open. Then there are no unwholesome states in the mind. At that point you can be sure that, if this recollection or if this awareness of this broad, expansive, open Loving-kindness is happening, and if it fades away in any kind of way, then something else is happening in the mind. That’s what I meant. When there is this presence of Loving-kindness in all directions, completely boundless, then then there’s only that. There is only love. And then, whatever comes in, then the feeling will diminish, the feeling will change. Because the mind has to be completely released in that respect, to be able to do that.

If another thought comes in, that means it’s not completely with the Loving-kindness. That means, it’s not fully there, so there’s a little bit of an unwholesome thing happening. So, it’s not clear cut, no. [Laughter]

Watch it here

Category: Meditation

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 3 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability  

From what I understand, the traditional story is that the Buddha reminisced about the time when he was a boy. He was sitting under the rose-apple tree. He took that as an object, or at least as a way to get into an uplifted state.

It’s quite interesting, there are a lot of different ways that the meditation process is described in different suttas.

There is a sutta that is called the Bhikkhunis Residence, in the Anguttara Nikaya. In it, Ananda goes to visit the nuns and he asks them about their practice. Ananda then comes back and talks to the Buddha, and the Buddha says; yes, there is a way of doing it where there are the Four Resting Places of Awareness, or the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. You are aware of body as body, mind as mind, sensations as sensations and mental contents as mental contents. And as you are aware of this, and you start to get distracted, you bring in an uplifting object. This is what is known as Development by Application, according to the Buddha.

In that sutta he says to bring up a wholesome object, an uplifting object. Once you bring up the uplifting object, you let go of anything related to it, meaning you let go of the image, the thought, the examination and the verbalization that led to that uplifting object. And you stay with the awareness of that uplifting object. This is known as Development by Application.

And then there is development without application, or the undirected meditation. In this one, it’s just resting mind’s awareness on the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. And then you can actually take the factors of the jhana as your object. Meaning, you can go through each jhana – this happens later, when you make the determinations, when you’re quite developed in your practice of the jhanas. You can actually take the factors of the first jhana and be able to be in the first jhana, just by intending it. Making your object, so to speak, the factors of the first jhana. Likewise, with the second, the third, the fourth jhana, and then the higher dimensions of Infinite Space, Infinite Consciousness, Nothingness, Neither-perception-nor-non-perception.

As far as I know, and as little as I know about the suttas, I don’t think the Buddha specifically mentioned anything related to taking an object for the jhanas. However, there’s one specific sutta, in fact, it is one of the suttas that is in the curriculum for this retreat*.   I cannot tell you by memory exactly what the name of the sutta is, but it is related to Metta, and in that, the Buddha is talking about the different jhanas. He is talking about how each of the Brahma Viharas is tied to each of the higher dimensions of Infinite Space, Infinite Consciousness, Nothingness and Neither-perception-nor-non-perception. He talks about Loving-kindness with the first four jhanas, and then he talks about Compassion with Infinite Space, Empathetic Joy with Infinite Consciousness and Equanimity with Nothingness. This is also in relation to the Seven Factors of Awakening.

As far as the object of meditation is concerned, all you need to know is; once you have your object of meditation, whatever it is, it’s important to be with it, to stay unified around it, so that you can continue to be in that jhana. That’s a way for the mind to be tied with the present moment. Aware of what is happening in the present moment, while allowing the mind to start to develop – through that awareness – the different factors of the jhana, and then experience it one by one as they arise.

[Person asking the question]

Thank you. You said, some object to get a child – I couldn’t hear properly?

[Delson]

 I was saying that the traditional story is – and I may be mistaken – that the Buddha pondered back to when he was a child, sitting under the rose-apple tree. And he was thinking about how happy he was in that state. This was at a time when his father was visiting some place, and he sat at the foot of the tree. He remembered how easy his mind was, while he was meditating, and he then contemplated; what if I were to do that again?

This was on the night before his Enlightenment, and he used that same process to get into this jhana with that ease of mind.

*Delson probably refers to the Samyutta Nikaya, 46.54 Accompanied by Loving-kindness, which is part of the materials offered for Day 3.

Watch it here

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 3 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability  

It’s something similar to how you do the 6R process. When you are doing the 6R’s, you Recognize that you were distracted, but you don’t say I’m Recognizing now or say the rest of the steps in that way.

It’s more about when you Recognize it, it’s just the mind understands it, in a way without words; OK, this is the factor. It might seem like it’s verbalizing, but it’s just a recognition that happens. And that recognition is really Perception, of the factors of the jhana. It’s like, when you see the color blue, that’s one of the examples that I use, your mind does not necessarily say; that’s the color blue, but somehow you just know that that’s blue, without verbalizing that’s blue.

[person that asked the question]

So, it’s practice, basically, just like the 6R practice.

[Delson]

It is practice, like the 6R practice, but remember; when you have that open awareness, you are able to be unified around the object. Your mind is open, not closed off. It’s not contracted, it’s open and therefore it’s able to be observing other things around the object.

This is one of the reasons why, for example, during an interview one will ask you ‘did you feel this, did you feel that’; you’re able to recognize that, yes, there was some change in the quality of the feeling, or there was a sensation arising, things like that. When you’re able to notice those things, it’s because the awareness was open, and because, while your awareness around the object, around the feeling, it’s also open for any insights that might arise. And its open enough to be able to see a hindrance arising and be able to Recognize it as quickly as possible and using the 6R process.

The more you’re able to do that, the more you recognize; oh this is the factor involved in the fifth jhana, or the fourth jhana, this is the factor involved in Infinite Space, and so on.

Watch it here

The 6Rs are crucial, and the most profound is the Relax step. Many people seem to glaze over the Relax step, not really taking the time to understand what it is. It is the relaxing of the mind, body and the tightness in both.

 What does it feel like to Relax?

Relaxing the bodily, mental, and verbal Formations – it feels like a clear space, a pristine, thoughtless space without craving. The body is relaxed, but not slouching. Mind is clear, like a cloudless sky, and thoughts are gone, barely wisps, if they are present at all.

 To practice just the Relax step, as a preliminary step to understand what it feels like:

Just let mind be and then intend the relaxation. Relax, relax, relax – then, you are able to see what it means to have that open spacious mind. Then, you can quickly go to it, as you let go of the distraction, then you see that open mind.

 Some people seem to associate the Relax step with a sharp intake of air and a letting of breath. This is a reactionary aspect of the Relax step, but not the Relax step of stilling Formations in and of itself.

 Of course, one caveat – you mustn’t just Relax during the actual meditation. Once you understand what it feels like, you use it as part of the 6R’s. Then, there is development and progress, as it is intended. Besides, if you were to just relax, relax, relax, the mind would become dull, with no object.

 Once you understand the feeling of the Relax step, you are ready to incorporate it into the 6 R’s. This is what happens:

Your object is Metta. Suddenly you think back to a time with nostalgia, or you consider the future, or think about anything other than the Metta. You

  1. RECOGNIZE, seeing the distraction.
  2. RELEASING is the immediate letting go of the distraction – not attending to it, turning mind’s attention now to the
  3. RELAX step – the stilling of Formations. Mind is now clear, ready to attend to
  4. RE-SMILING, or checking if you ares still smiling, then
  5. RETURNING to the object of meditation, then
  6. REPEATING every time you see mind has been distracted.

 All of this happens in less than 5 seconds. It is a flow, a rolling of the steps.

Don’t get attached

Now, the other thing to consider is that mind attaches itself to the Loving-kindness, Compassion, Empathetic Joy or Equanimity.  

 Here, it’s important to pay attention to mind observing – just watching, not becoming the Metta. It’s an object, therefore, you are watching it, not becoming it. The feelings that come up from the object must be observed, and 6R’d if they distract. Likewise, you observe that you were distracted – not becoming the distraction by fighting it or ignoring it. Any such effort will only cause more craving and clinging. Allow the mind to do its work. It will unravel itself.

Observation is not focus – it is the mere watching and seeing what occurs, not becoming involved or identifying with the feeling or the object. This then would become absorption concentration; too much focus, pushing down insights to arise naturally.

 This is why relaxing is important – it provides the mind space, required for insights to arise.

The luminous Mind

  It’s only after the mind has reached stability through the jhanas, that mind can then watch its own clarity, luminosity, and radiance – the bright, quiet, clear mind, where at this point all crude Formations have been relaxed, and now one lets go of the subtler Formations.

Category: Meditation

It’s a bit of both, because this is explaining the transition between the first level of meditation and the second. The jhanas – the levels of meditation – are a road map that the Buddha gave us. If we use Right Effort, if we use Wise Practice – Samma Vayama – we will go through these states naturally. But to be aware and to understand them, will help us as well to understand how to practice. Then, there is more confidence and we understand where this is going, instead of constantly wondering.  

At the beginning, there will be thinking, there will be imagining. It might be that you are using this to bring up, for example Joy, or an uplifting object, because when the mind is uplifted and happy, it is aware. The nature of a joyful mind is to be aware and not overexcited, just uplifted, just happy.

When this happens, as you continue calming down, letting go – whatever your object of meditation is, whether you’re using the Loving-kindness, the Compassion or the Satipatthanas  – it will calm down. The thinking and the reflection will naturally become too coarse for the mind. The mind will start to really collect and gather, and these thoughts and imagination will feel like restlessness a little bit more. So, naturally, that is simply your wisdom, your discernment that is getting sharper and sharper. And the mind is taking more delight, more freedom in not thinking.

Watch it here

Category: Meditation

One is in jhana when the hindrances are absent and when the Enlightenment Factors are present to some degree. For example, in the first and second jhana, there is present Joy. In the third and fourth jhana, there are more prevalent the factors of Equanimity and Tranquility. But in all jhanas, there is always present Mindfulness, Collectedness, Enthusiasm, and Investigation. As one reaches the arupa jhanas, these Factors become more refined and more balanced. 

In terms of conceit, being, ignorance and delusion, they will be present insofar as one considers a sense of self to any of these factors. However, that does not make the jhana unwholesome or ineffective. It is the insight of this, that arises from jhana itself.

Let’s break it down in the context of kamma. There is the wholesome kamma and the unwholesome kamma. At the mundane level of the Eightfold Path, one endeavors to scale up from the unwholesome kamma to the wholesome kamma. But even wholesome kamma creates an effect. It is a good effect, but nonetheless an effect that causes rebirth. This is because there is still Bhava – sense of being there – due to clinging to the factors of jhana, which can cause rebirth in the Formless Realms.

However, once one sees through this, letting go of conceit, then such activity of entering jhana, and other activities in general, do not produce more seeds of rebirth. Such activities are non-abiding or unconditioned, or simply understood as wholly impersonal. They can be labeled neutral to the extent that there is no sense of doer, or being, in those activities. Then one is functioning at the supramundane level of the Eightfold Path. Through such jhana practice, there is no sense of a meditator – just the meditating happening as an impersonal activity.

In short, so long as one is not absorbed and the enlightenment Factors are present, such jhana is wholesome, with potential to create positive states of existence.

When the arahant meditates, such jhana is also wholesome, but without the potential to create any state of existence.

If one is to extend this understanding towards the levels of awakening, it can be understood in this way:

For a worldling, they may produce wholesome actions, but without Right View, they have the potential of lower rebirths.

The Sotapanna [Stream-enterer], has Mundane Right View and has eradicated Doubt, Attachment to Self-Views and Attachment to Rites and Rituals, so they produce wholesome actions as well. Their future states of existence, if not having crossed further, will be in a human realm or higher, within the sensual planes of existence.

The Sakadagami [Once-Returner], has further reduced Craving and Ill Will. But since these are still present, if not having crossed further, they will also take rebirth in a human realm or higher, within the sensual planes of existence.

The Anagami [Non-Returner], has eradicated Craving and Ill Will. But because they still have Ignorance, Conceit, Restlessness, Craving for Existence and Non-Existence, while their actions are wholesome, and because they still have tendencies towards Conceit, Being and Ignorance, they will take rebirth beyond the sensual realms, into the Pure Abodes.

 An Anagami may cling to the jhanas, but not because of Mentality attaching Being to the relief. Rather their clinging is to the Dhamma itself, and because jhana is contained within the Dhamma, there is relishing for that sake, not for the mental relief itself. Thus, the Formations that arise are void of the craving arising because of the feelings from jhana, but they are still fettered by identifying with the jhana, and by extension the Dhamma. 

For the Arahant, because they have let go of all tendencies and fetters and defilements, no more potential for rebirth arises. Even if they produce wholesome actions, such actions don’t arise from a mentality that is rooted in Conceit or sense of doer.

In short, one is to understand that wholesome activities produce wholesome effects (and rebirths) only if they contain the sense of Being and self in them. Only at the level of Arahantship, the tendencies of conceit, being, and ignorance are fully destroyed, so any wholesome action taken is considered fruit-less, unable to produce any further new kamma.

This is why it is recommended that 

1) one doesn’t get absorbed in jhana [one-pointed concentration] because then, while no hindrances are present, no Factors of Awakening are present either. Or if they are, they are not observed and developed in a fruitful and effective manner. 

2) one doesn’t cling to jhana with a sense of self so that no Formations, rooted in the mental craving for jhana, can become strengthened and create the possibility of rebirth in a jhanic realm. Beyond this, no Formations rooted in the identifying with the Dhamma will arise either. 

The more one understands this, and the more one enters jhana without grasping and clinging, the more one wears away the fetters, Formations and tendencies. Because these would cause rebirths, related to that jhana that is being clung to. Or to the Dhamma itself, which causes rebirth in the Pure Abodes, which in turn leads one closer to Arahantship.

Category: Meditation

This is a sequence that is used in many ways, but usually the Buddha would – when he explained his whole explanation of the Path – get just before the first jhana and explain that. When one realized that the five hindrances have been left behind, the Buddha says: pāmojja jāyati.

Pāmojja is the word for gladness, the root is mud – like joy [Mudita]. It can be interpreted as gladness. It could also be translated as joy. I am sometimes translating it as relief. Because, when the five hindrances are left behind, they’re let go of, then there is that relief, there is that pāmojja. The Buddha, in Pali, says pāmuditassa pīti jāyati. That means with that gladness, or with that uplifted mind, or with that relieved mind, there is joy.

But we need to know the suttas very well to understand that this joy that the Buddha is speaking of here, is spiritual joy, it is mental-development-joy. This is no everyday kind of eating-a-chocolate-bar kind of joy [laughs].

This the joy of bhavana, the joy of mental development, because these five hindrances are like the clouds over the mind, and when these are left behind, there’s this wonderful joy of mental clarity. I would say this is the main difference between them.

 If we look at them in this way in other suttas [see for instance Anguttara Nikaya 6.25 Recollection], the Buddha will use that sequence when he talks about the six Recollections of an awakened person; a person who has entered stream-entry; a sakadagami or Once-Returner; an anagami or Non-Returner or an arahant. These four kinds of persons will naturally recollect:

  1. the Buddha, the good qualities of the Buddha, and naturally their mind will be uplifted. That’s how he says that pāmojja will arise, and that pīti jāyati, that joy.
  2. recollecting the Dhamma
  3. recollecting the Sangha
  4. recollecting generosity, their own generosity, or whatever act of help that they’ve done
  5. the virtue, recollecting virtue
  6. or recollecting the devas.

It’s also used in other terms. But that’s a few places where we can find that sequence.

[person who asked the question]

Thank you bhante. Can you also help to clarify the difference between pīti and sukha?

[Bhante Ananda]

 This is also Pali, and therefore it has a very specific context which we don’t always have here, in this day and age, and with the English language, for example. It’s a bit tricky to translate Pali word for word to English. In fact, that’s one of the things we realize pretty soon, that is very difficult.

But I would say that generally, pīti is more this stronger kind of joy, it is a bit more excited. Sukha is more like happiness, but a synonym of it would also be ease, this really nice ease. This is also reflected in the second and the third jhana; one feels ease with the body, sukha with the body.

Whenever I speak to different people, I will play with these words, depending on where people are. But I use happiness most generally, because it is quite well understood. Further along in the meditation, it becomes quite clear then, that it is simply this really good ease, of body and mind. So, that would be more sukha.

[Comment from the audience]

 Bhante, generally, pīti is translated as mental pleaser and sukha as bodily pleaser, in translations I have seen.

[Bhante Ananda]

For example, in the Ānāpānasati Sutta, the Buddha will explain the first four steps, which include tranquilizing the bodily formations. And then, knowing the whole body, and then he says; breathing in and out with joy, pīti, and then breathing in and out with sukha, with ease or happiness. So, if sukha is really this bodily, then pīti is more mental; then it would be the other way around.

One thing that is happening quite often, I would say, is that some terms have become very rigid in Buddhism. When we read the original texts, the Buddha himself played a lot with these terms.

 It’s not that it’s not true what is being said, but we should always keep an open mind as to how these words come. and how the Buddha uses these terms.

 In fact, sometimes he uses these terms as something that is unwholesome, and sometimes he uses them as something that is really wholesome and that is to be developed.

We have to understand what context it is being said in, and why is the Buddha saying that. We have to know the essence, the core, of his teaching, to understand what he means. I would say that he had quite a wide spectrum of ways of interpreting words, and he even mentioned that himself.

Watch it here

Online Retreat

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 0 was part of a daily 30-minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

(Slightly edited to improve readability)

It really depends on the translations. Bhante Ananda’s translation likes to call it the Four Resting places of Awareness. That’s another way of looking at it.

This is, first and foremost the Body. Understanding how your body is feeling in any given moment.

The Sensations that are arising from the body is the second, the third is your mind, or consciousness they call it. I call it Mindset, because a mindset can continually change and is a collection of thoughts that creates a certain mindset.  When you get into the jhanas, each jhana is a particular kind of mindset, because it has different kinds of factors within each jhana.

And Dhamma is really phenomena. Any kind of phenomena related to the mind, whether it’s thoughts, emotions, memories, Formations, things like that.

These are the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.

When you are practicing the jhanas, practicing Metta and you get into jhana, the way you know you are in jhana is that your mind is collected. Effective or Right Collectedness is being in one of these four jhanas, first and foremost.

Going back to Dhamma, you have other aspects of it; you have phenomena related to the five hindrances; you are aware if any of these hindrances are in the mind. Any time a hindrance is present, you are no longer in jhana. This is how you are utilizing Mindfulness. By seeing whether a hindrance is present or not in the mind, because when you are distracted, you know there is a hindrance there. So, you use the 6R’s to come back.

And as you are doing this, you are also starting to activate and balance the Seven Factors of Awakening. This is also part of the Dhamma aspect of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. When it comes to the Seven Factors of Awakening, they start to be utilized more and more as you get higher into the process, into higher dimensions of perception, beyond the four jhanas.

But for the time being, all you should know if you are starting on the Path, or you’re still working with the first four jhanas, is if your mind continues to stay with the object, and you are not pushing. Because if you push, you are not utilizing Mindfulness anymore, you’re using too much effort, too much one-pointed focus. You just observe.

In the observation of that, you are collectively being observant of the body, of the mind, of the sensations and of the mental contents within the mind. It’s an open awareness. In the awareness of that, you are being attentive to the feeling, but you are also aware if there are any thoughts in the background, or if the mind is being distracted.

Watch it here (start from 10.20 minutes)

Category: Online Retreat

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 0 was part of a daily 30-minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

(Slightly edited to improve readability)

No, you don’t want to look for any kind of tension in the body.

Earlier somebody asked a question about doing the Relax step, but not necessarily finding any tension in the body. That’s fine, you don’t need to. The Relax step is not only letting go of the craving in the form of that tension, another aspect is that it’s also tranquilizing the bodily Formations. It’s something that is mentioned in the Anapanasati Sutta (Majjhima Nikaya 118); whenever you breathe in or out, you tranquilize the bodily Formation. This tranquilizing is the deeper effect of that Relax step.

If you are aware of tension and see that it’s there, you intend the Relax step to let go of that tension, which is that Craving.

Even if the tension is not there, utilizing the Relax step whenever you get distracted, will release Formations, will let go and relax the Formations, no matter how subtle they are.

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Category: Online Retreat

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 3 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability  

It’s something similar to how you do the 6R process. When you are doing the 6R’s, you Recognize that you were distracted, but you don’t say I’m Recognizing now or say the rest of the steps in that way.

It’s more about when you Recognize it, it’s just the mind understands it, in a way without words; OK, this is the factor. It might seem like it’s verbalizing, but it’s just a recognition that happens. And that recognition is really Perception, of the factors of the jhana. It’s like, when you see the color blue, that’s one of the examples that I use, your mind does not necessarily say; that’s the color blue, but somehow you just know that that’s blue, without verbalizing that’s blue.

[person that asked the question]

So, it’s practice, basically, just like the 6R practice.

[Delson]

It is practice, like the 6R practice, but remember; when you have that open awareness, you are able to be unified around the object. Your mind is open, not closed off. It’s not contracted, it’s open and therefore it’s able to be observing other things around the object.

This is one of the reasons why, for example, during an interview one will ask you ‘did you feel this, did you feel that’; you’re able to recognize that, yes, there was some change in the quality of the feeling, or there was a sensation arising, things like that. When you’re able to notice those things, it’s because the awareness was open, and because, while your awareness around the object, around the feeling, it’s also open for any insights that might arise. And its open enough to be able to see a hindrance arising and be able to Recognize it as quickly as possible and using the 6R process.

The more you’re able to do that, the more you recognize; oh this is the factor involved in the fifth jhana, or the fourth jhana, this is the factor involved in Infinite Space, and so on.

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This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 4 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability 

The Mindfulness is a factor present in all states where attention is given. Whenever you are in jhana, the enlightenment Factors are present. Anytime you are distracted, the enlightenment Factors are not present, especially Mindfulness. But Mindfulness is always there, whether you are meditating in a sitting practice, or in daily living. This is why there’s the Four Foundations of Mindfulness in everyday living; you are mindful of the body as body; you’re mindful of sensations as sensations; you’re mindful of mind as mind; and you’re mindful of phenomena as phenomena. Every time you use your Mindfulness, you are activating the enlightenment Factor of Mindfulness, which means that you are able to see when a hindrance is arising and quickly let go of it, quickly use the 6R process to let go of it.

When it comes to the other enlightenment Factors that need to be balanced, just know that when you are in the jhana practice, the enlightenment Factors are already present in there.

As you get into deeper levels, you will see that, for example in Neither-perception-nor non-perception, your mind usually tends to slope either towards Sloth&Torpor or Restlessness. These are the two hindrances that are most dealt with, when it comes to the Neither-perception-nor non-perception. You will not see sensual craving in there, you won’t see ill will there, you won’t see doubt there as a hindrance.

Know this; whenever the hindrances are present, at that point the enlightenment Factors are not present. But as soon as you bring in Mindfulness, you start to bring in the other enlightenment Factors, depending upon which jhana you’re in; the level of the jhana that you’re at, determines the amount of enlightenment Factors that are present. For example, when you are in the first and second jhana, the enlightenment Factor of Joy and Energy are more prevalent. As you get deeper and deeper, certain other Factors are more prevalent. Once you get into quiet mind, as you’re just observing quiet mind, everything has been sort of aligned and balanced, and now smoothly flows. So, those hindrances of sensual craving, the ill will, and the doubt have been completely dealt with, and then, all you’re dealing with are the Sloth&Torpor and Restlessness. Whenever you see this happening, know that you’re not in jhana. When you use the 6R process, every step of the 6R process is in alignment with one of the enlightenment Factors. So, every time you use the 6R process, you are activating or reactivating the enlightenment Factors. And by doing so you’re coming back into jhana.

Watch it here

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 4 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability 

When you have one-pointed concentration or one-pointed focus, you’re actually suppressing the hindrances. So, you’re also suppressing the mind’s ability to see the hindrances. After you come out of that one- pointed focus or that one-pointed concentration, what one will notice is that, for a period of time, it may seem all well and fine. But then the hindrances arise with a vengeance, and there are still those hindrances present.

Whereas, if you’re using an open awareness in the case of the TWIM practice, using attention rooted in reality, and using this open Mindfulness you are already able to see how the hindrances are arising. And able to deal with them with Mindfulness, and then therefore activate the other enlightenment Factors.

In the case of the one-pointed focus or one-pointed concentration, none of those Factors are even present. There may be, sometimes, joy arising because of that one-pointed focus, but that is the wrong kind of joy. You can say it’s ineffective joy, it’s not necessarily the same Joy that you see with the enlightenment Factors. The mind may seem like it’s collected, but it’s not collected; it’s suppressed, rather than collected.

Collected mind and unification of mind, or unified mindset, is an attention around the object of meditation – or the vehicle of meditation, as it’s sometimes called – and so when you’re around it, you have a more clear and open awareness to which you can now recognize when hindrances might arise. And when they do, you can quickly 6R them. Or when insights arise, like insights into the Three Characteristics of Existence, insights into the links of Dependent Origination, insights into the Four Noble Truths, and so on. This is the way that the Path would be most effective.

Watch it here

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 5 was part of a daily 30-minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability

 It’s one of a few examples of where, having heard the talk, that for such beings, by not grasping, the Taints were destroyed, the defilements were destroyed, and thus they were then arahants.

 It’s interesting, there are a few other suttas, like the Bāhiya sutta [Udāna 1.10], which is very similar to another one in the Majjhima Nikaya, where it’s very similar in content as well, and style. Upon listening to the Buddha’s talk, and really contemplating what he says, they become arahants right there and then.

There’s even, and it’s very interesting, Sariputta who has two different accounts of how he sees through wisdom. There is, as we know traditionally, the Majjhima Nikāya, which is the Anupada sutta, One by One as they Occurred [MN 111] and when you read that, you see that it just goes through each of the jhanas and then the mind is liberated at the end, having seen with wisdom. But there is another sutta in Majjhima Nikāya, in which the Buddha is talking to Sariputta’s nephew, I believe, MN 74 To Dighanaka/Dighanakha Sutta. In that, Sariputta is fanning the Buddha, and upon listening to Buddha talk about the level of Feeling, and contemplating on that, Sariputtas Taints are destroyed and he attains arahantship.

 That means that there is a potential, if the mind is serene enough, if the mind is collected enough, if the mind is already mindful enough to be able to listen to it, and in that process apply what the Buddha is saying, upon listening to it.

For example, in the case of Sariputta, having understood the phenomena of Feeling, and understanding how on letting go of the phenomenon of Feeling, and by not grasping, he understood how it was impermanent, how it was impersonal. He let go of any attachment to it, and then was able, through seeing the links of the Dependent Origination in the next moment, to just let go of all the Taints. In that wisdom, the Taints were destroyed.

In the case of even Bahiya, I would say that that was what happened upon listening to it, with deep insight, with deep reverence and deep Mindfulness. Upon listening to it and seeing when he says about the self, in not being before or after the seeing, and there’s just pure seeing or pure experiencing, he was able to see and not involve his mind in the links of Dependent Origination, as they arose.

Whether it’s through the jhana practice – meaning, whether it’s through samadhi, Collectedness, that then you go through the four jhanas and then the higher states, and then enter Cessation and upon that, see with a clear mind and understand with wisdom –  or upon listening with deep reverence and allowing your mind to be free of any hindrances, essentially your mind is  collected while you’re listening.

We have some interesting comments; they’re talking about that it’s possible that these people were meditating while listening. In some sense they could have been, because they were listening so deeply, that their mind was quite serene and tranquil.

And another individual says that Mindfulness, Collectiveness, and the Four Right Efforts is meditation. Yes, in having that application of Mindfulness – seeing the body, seeing the mind, seeing the sensations – and understanding it as the Buddha is relaying the information, using the Right Efforts, whenever the mind might be distracted, and coming back to that Collectedness in that meditative state while listening; they were able to see the links of Dependent Origination as they arose, without having to go through the entire process of getting into Cessation and coming out of it. It is quite possible, but for that you need very good Collectedness, very good and very sharp Mindfulness. And good Kamma.

Watch it here

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 3 was part of a daily 30 -minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability  

From what I understand, the traditional story is that the Buddha reminisced about the time when he was a boy. He was sitting under the rose-apple tree. He took that as an object, or at least as a way to get into an uplifted state.

It’s quite interesting, there are a lot of different ways that the meditation process is described in different suttas.

There is a sutta that is called the Bhikkhunis Residence, in the Anguttara Nikaya. In it, Ananda goes to visit the nuns and he asks them about their practice. Ananda then comes back and talks to the Buddha, and the Buddha says; yes, there is a way of doing it where there are the Four Resting Places of Awareness, or the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. You are aware of body as body, mind as mind, sensations as sensations and mental contents as mental contents. And as you are aware of this, and you start to get distracted, you bring in an uplifting object. This is what is known as Development by Application, according to the Buddha.

In that sutta he says to bring up a wholesome object, an uplifting object. Once you bring up the uplifting object, you let go of anything related to it, meaning you let go of the image, the thought, the examination and the verbalization that led to that uplifting object. And you stay with the awareness of that uplifting object. This is known as Development by Application.

And then there is development without application, or the undirected meditation. In this one, it’s just resting mind’s awareness on the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. And then you can actually take the factors of the jhana as your object. Meaning, you can go through each jhana – this happens later, when you make the determinations, when you’re quite developed in your practice of the jhanas. You can actually take the factors of the first jhana and be able to be in the first jhana, just by intending it. Making your object, so to speak, the factors of the first jhana. Likewise, with the second, the third, the fourth jhana, and then the higher dimensions of Infinite Space, Infinite Consciousness, Nothingness, Neither-perception-nor-non-perception.

As far as I know, and as little as I know about the suttas, I don’t think the Buddha specifically mentioned anything related to taking an object for the jhanas. However, there’s one specific sutta, in fact, it is one of the suttas that is in the curriculum for this retreat*.   I cannot tell you by memory exactly what the name of the sutta is, but it is related to Metta, and in that, the Buddha is talking about the different jhanas. He is talking about how each of the Brahma Viharas is tied to each of the higher dimensions of Infinite Space, Infinite Consciousness, Nothingness and Neither-perception-nor-non-perception. He talks about Loving-kindness with the first four jhanas, and then he talks about Compassion with Infinite Space, Empathetic Joy with Infinite Consciousness and Equanimity with Nothingness. This is also in relation to the Seven Factors of Awakening.

As far as the object of meditation is concerned, all you need to know is; once you have your object of meditation, whatever it is, it’s important to be with it, to stay unified around it, so that you can continue to be in that jhana. That’s a way for the mind to be tied with the present moment. Aware of what is happening in the present moment, while allowing the mind to start to develop – through that awareness – the different factors of the jhana, and then experience it one by one as they arise.

[Person asking the question]

Thank you. You said, some object to get a child – I couldn’t hear properly?

[Delson]

 I was saying that the traditional story is – and I may be mistaken – that the Buddha pondered back to when he was a child, sitting under the rose-apple tree. And he was thinking about how happy he was in that state. This was at a time when his father was visiting some place, and he sat at the foot of the tree. He remembered how easy his mind was, while he was meditating, and he then contemplated; what if I were to do that again?

This was on the night before his Enlightenment, and he used that same process to get into this jhana with that ease of mind.

*Delson probably refers to the Samyutta Nikaya, 46.54 Accompanied by Loving-kindness, which is part of the materials offered for Day 3.

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Sutta Explanations

Psychic abilities are a result of Kamma.

An example of that can be found in the case of Anuruddha. In the Therāgāthā – the stories of the early arahant monks – it says that Anuruddha lit an oil lamp for one of the previous Buddhas, Sumedha, while the latter would meditate beneath a tree. As a kammic result, in his final rebirth, Anuruddha was praised by the Buddha Gotama, as being foremost in developing the Divine Eye. He was able to see beyond the physical eye, viewing beings in a thousand world-systems.  

One may be able to develop such psychic abilities, whether one has entered the Stream or not, and whether one has completed the Noble Eightfold Path or not. 

 It is a matter of practice and unlocking such abilities through the development of mind, using the jhanas. 

 However, final knowledge of the Destruction of Craving / Ignorance / the Fetters and Taints, supersedes all other abilities.

An arahant could develop them, but would not have an inclination to develop these abilities. 

This is a sequence that is used in many ways, but usually the Buddha would – when he explained his whole explanation of the Path – get just before the first jhana and explain that. When one realized that the five hindrances have been left behind, the Buddha says: pāmojja jāyati.

Pāmojja is the word for gladness, the root is mud – like joy [Mudita]. It can be interpreted as gladness. It could also be translated as joy. I am sometimes translating it as relief. Because, when the five hindrances are left behind, they’re let go of, then there is that relief, there is that pāmojja. The Buddha, in Pali, says pāmuditassa pīti jāyati. That means with that gladness, or with that uplifted mind, or with that relieved mind, there is joy.

But we need to know the suttas very well to understand that this joy that the Buddha is speaking of here, is spiritual joy, it is mental-development-joy. This is no everyday kind of eating-a-chocolate-bar kind of joy [laughs].

This the joy of bhavana, the joy of mental development, because these five hindrances are like the clouds over the mind, and when these are left behind, there’s this wonderful joy of mental clarity. I would say this is the main difference between them.

 If we look at them in this way in other suttas [see for instance Anguttara Nikaya 6.25 Recollection], the Buddha will use that sequence when he talks about the six Recollections of an awakened person; a person who has entered stream-entry; a sakadagami or Once-Returner; an anagami or Non-Returner or an arahant. These four kinds of persons will naturally recollect:

  1. the Buddha, the good qualities of the Buddha, and naturally their mind will be uplifted. That’s how he says that pāmojja will arise, and that pīti jāyati, that joy.
  2. recollecting the Dhamma
  3. recollecting the Sangha
  4. recollecting generosity, their own generosity, or whatever act of help that they’ve done
  5. the virtue, recollecting virtue
  6. or recollecting the devas.

It’s also used in other terms. But that’s a few places where we can find that sequence.

[person who asked the question]

Thank you bhante. Can you also help to clarify the difference between pīti and sukha?

[Bhante Ananda]

 This is also Pali, and therefore it has a very specific context which we don’t always have here, in this day and age, and with the English language, for example. It’s a bit tricky to translate Pali word for word to English. In fact, that’s one of the things we realize pretty soon, that is very difficult.

But I would say that generally, pīti is more this stronger kind of joy, it is a bit more excited. Sukha is more like happiness, but a synonym of it would also be ease, this really nice ease. This is also reflected in the second and the third jhana; one feels ease with the body, sukha with the body.

Whenever I speak to different people, I will play with these words, depending on where people are. But I use happiness most generally, because it is quite well understood. Further along in the meditation, it becomes quite clear then, that it is simply this really good ease, of body and mind. So, that would be more sukha.

[Comment from the audience]

 Bhante, generally, pīti is translated as mental pleaser and sukha as bodily pleaser, in translations I have seen.

[Bhante Ananda]

For example, in the Ānāpānasati Sutta, the Buddha will explain the first four steps, which include tranquilizing the bodily formations. And then, knowing the whole body, and then he says; breathing in and out with joy, pīti, and then breathing in and out with sukha, with ease or happiness. So, if sukha is really this bodily, then pīti is more mental; then it would be the other way around.

One thing that is happening quite often, I would say, is that some terms have become very rigid in Buddhism. When we read the original texts, the Buddha himself played a lot with these terms.

 It’s not that it’s not true what is being said, but we should always keep an open mind as to how these words come. and how the Buddha uses these terms.

 In fact, sometimes he uses these terms as something that is unwholesome, and sometimes he uses them as something that is really wholesome and that is to be developed.

We have to understand what context it is being said in, and why is the Buddha saying that. We have to know the essence, the core, of his teaching, to understand what he means. I would say that he had quite a wide spectrum of ways of interpreting words, and he even mentioned that himself.

Watch it here

This question came up in the Online 10-day Retreat Nov 3, 2020, guided by Delson Armstrong. Day 5 was part of a daily 30-minute discussion on the suttas, the Dhamma talk and reflections.

Slightly edited to improve readability

 It’s one of a few examples of where, having heard the talk, that for such beings, by not grasping, the Taints were destroyed, the defilements were destroyed, and thus they were then arahants.

 It’s interesting, there are a few other suttas, like the Bāhiya sutta [Udāna 1.10], which is very similar to another one in the Majjhima Nikaya, where it’s very similar in content as well, and style. Upon listening to the Buddha’s talk, and really contemplating what he says, they become arahants right there and then.

There’s even, and it’s very interesting, Sariputta who has two different accounts of how he sees through wisdom. There is, as we know traditionally, the Majjhima Nikāya, which is the Anupada sutta, One by One as they Occurred [MN 111] and when you read that, you see that it just goes through each of the jhanas and then the mind is liberated at the end, having seen with wisdom. But there is another sutta in Majjhima Nikāya, in which the Buddha is talking to Sariputta’s nephew, I believe, MN 74 To Dighanaka/Dighanakha Sutta. In that, Sariputta is fanning the Buddha, and upon listening to Buddha talk about the level of Feeling, and contemplating on that, Sariputtas Taints are destroyed and he attains arahantship.

 That means that there is a potential, if the mind is serene enough, if the mind is collected enough, if the mind is already mindful enough to be able to listen to it, and in that process apply what the Buddha is saying, upon listening to it.

For example, in the case of Sariputta, having understood the phenomena of Feeling, and understanding how on letting go of the phenomenon of Feeling, and by not grasping, he understood how it was impermanent, how it was impersonal. He let go of any attachment to it, and then was able, through seeing the links of the Dependent Origination in the next moment, to just let go of all the Taints. In that wisdom, the Taints were destroyed.

In the case of even Bahiya, I would say that that was what happened upon listening to it, with deep insight, with deep reverence and deep Mindfulness. Upon listening to it and seeing when he says about the self, in not being before or after the seeing, and there’s just pure seeing or pure experiencing, he was able to see and not involve his mind in the links of Dependent Origination, as they arose.

Whether it’s through the jhana practice – meaning, whether it’s through samadhi, Collectedness, that then you go through the four jhanas and then the higher states, and then enter Cessation and upon that, see with a clear mind and understand with wisdom –  or upon listening with deep reverence and allowing your mind to be free of any hindrances, essentially your mind is  collected while you’re listening.

We have some interesting comments; they’re talking about that it’s possible that these people were meditating while listening. In some sense they could have been, because they were listening so deeply, that their mind was quite serene and tranquil.

And another individual says that Mindfulness, Collectiveness, and the Four Right Efforts is meditation. Yes, in having that application of Mindfulness – seeing the body, seeing the mind, seeing the sensations – and understanding it as the Buddha is relaying the information, using the Right Efforts, whenever the mind might be distracted, and coming back to that Collectedness in that meditative state while listening; they were able to see the links of Dependent Origination as they arose, without having to go through the entire process of getting into Cessation and coming out of it. It is quite possible, but for that you need very good Collectedness, very good and very sharp Mindfulness. And good Kamma.

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