What’s the difference between gladness and joy?
This is a sequence that is used in many ways, but usually the Buddha would – when he explained his whole explanation of the Path – get just before the first jhana and explain that. When one realized that the five hindrances have been left behind, the Buddha says: pāmojja jāyati.
Pāmojja is the word for gladness, the root is mud – like joy [Mudita]. It can be interpreted as gladness. It could also be translated as joy. I am sometimes translating it as relief. Because, when the five hindrances are left behind, they’re let go of, then there is that relief, there is that pāmojja. The Buddha, in Pali, says pāmuditassa pīti jāyati. That means with that gladness, or with that uplifted mind, or with that relieved mind, there is joy.
But we need to know the suttas very well to understand that this joy that the Buddha is speaking of here, is spiritual joy, it is mental-development-joy. This is no everyday kind of eating-a-chocolate-bar kind of joy [laughs].
This the joy of bhavana, the joy of mental development, because these five hindrances are like the clouds over the mind, and when these are left behind, there’s this wonderful joy of mental clarity. I would say this is the main difference between them.
If we look at them in this way in other suttas [see for instance Anguttara Nikaya 6.25 Recollection], the Buddha will use that sequence when he talks about the six Recollections of an awakened person; a person who has entered stream-entry; a sakadagami or Once-Returner; an anagami or Non-Returner or an arahant. These four kinds of persons will naturally recollect:
- the Buddha, the good qualities of the Buddha, and naturally their mind will be uplifted. That’s how he says that pāmojja will arise, and that pīti jāyati, that joy.
- recollecting the Dhamma
- recollecting the Sangha
- recollecting generosity, their own generosity, or whatever act of help that they’ve done
- the virtue, recollecting virtue
- or recollecting the devas.
It’s also used in other terms. But that’s a few places where we can find that sequence.
[person who asked the question]
Thank you bhante. Can you also help to clarify the difference between pīti and sukha?
This is also Pali, and therefore it has a very specific context which we don’t always have here, in this day and age, and with the English language, for example. It’s a bit tricky to translate Pali word for word to English. In fact, that’s one of the things we realize pretty soon, that is very difficult.
But I would say that generally, pīti is more this stronger kind of joy, it is a bit more excited. Sukha is more like happiness, but a synonym of it would also be ease, this really nice ease. This is also reflected in the second and the third jhana; one feels ease with the body, sukha with the body.
Whenever I speak to different people, I will play with these words, depending on where people are. But I use happiness most generally, because it is quite well understood. Further along in the meditation, it becomes quite clear then, that it is simply this really good ease, of body and mind. So, that would be more sukha.
[Comment from the audience]
Bhante, generally, pīti is translated as mental pleaser and sukha as bodily pleaser, in translations I have seen.
For example, in the Ānāpānasati Sutta, the Buddha will explain the first four steps, which include tranquilizing the bodily formations. And then, knowing the whole body, and then he says; breathing in and out with joy, pīti, and then breathing in and out with sukha, with ease or happiness. So, if sukha is really this bodily, then pīti is more mental; then it would be the other way around.
One thing that is happening quite often, I would say, is that some terms have become very rigid in Buddhism. When we read the original texts, the Buddha himself played a lot with these terms.
It’s not that it’s not true what is being said, but we should always keep an open mind as to how these words come. and how the Buddha uses these terms.
In fact, sometimes he uses these terms as something that is unwholesome, and sometimes he uses them as something that is really wholesome and that is to be developed.
We have to understand what context it is being said in, and why is the Buddha saying that. We have to know the essence, the core, of his teaching, to understand what he means. I would say that he had quite a wide spectrum of ways of interpreting words, and he even mentioned that himself.